The optimum dosages of both HRWR types obtained with various w/c ratios are compared in Fig. 1. Variation of flowability with time for mixtures made with PNS and PC HRWR types are presented in Fig. 2 and Fig. 3, respectively. When used with PNS, BC is shown to require slightly higher HRWR dosages than OC to ensure a given dispersed system, regardless of the w/c ratio. It is worthy to mention that these results are valid for the cement used in this SNDX-275 study. For example, mixtures made with BC and PNS required dosages of 0.45%, 0.45%, and 0.36%, by mass of cement, for w/c of 0.30, 0.33, and 0.36, respectively. In the case of mixtures made with OC, Chlorophyta dosages are 0.40%, 0.40%, and 0.35%, respectively. When PC HRWR is used, BC requires, however, lower HRWR dosages than OC, regardless of the w/c. Indeed, BC mixtures require dosages of 0.12%, 0.10%, and 0.08%, while those made with OC require higher dosages of 0.20%, 0.16%, and 0.12%, respectively. A high HRWR dosage reflects a lower efficiency of the HRWR to disperse solid particles and secure a given flowability. This may be affected by reactivity of cement, aluminate phase, calcium sulfate, and alkali content ,  and .
For different coating lengths of the same (20 mm) thickness (Fig. 6a, c, and d), similar damage modes are observed except that NHS-SS-Biotin more transverse cracks occur in longer coatings.
3.2. Axial compressive loading test
Fig. 7 shows the tests while the steel members are under axial compression. To avoid local and overall bucking in the steel members due to initial eccentricity, a mini-column is fabricated from 8 mm thick steel plates as illustrated in Fig. 7a.
Fig. 7. Axial compressive loading test on cementitious material coated steel members: (a) specimen dimension; (b) test setup; (c) coating-steel interfacial cracks; (d) coating peeling off.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
When the silica average strain in the steel plates reaches approximately 0.2%, coating-steel interfacial cracks appear at top and bottom ends (Fig. 7c), and then propagate towards the centre with further increase of the load. When the steel strain reaches approximately 0.3%, cracks spreads all over the coating-steel interface but without any internal damage in the coatings. Soon after that, the coatings peel off as shown in Fig. 7d.
When considering the results in more detail, the analysis also indicates that the effectiveness of European air quality policies with respect to health impacts from ABT-538 may be hampered if no ambitious climate policies – as described in the RCPs – were adopted at an international scale. As shown in Colette et al. (2013a), intercontinental transport of air pollution and climate change increase ozone and thus ozone related health effects between 2005 and 2050 under the reference scenario. Ambitious international climate policies and increased efforts to reduce air pollution in other world regions are thus crucial to reduce health effects from ozone in Europe.